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Allah swears by His Creation that the Person Who purifies Himself will be Successful and the Person Who corrupts Himself *** Print E-mail
Written by Ibn Kathir   
Friday, 10 November 2006

Allah swears by His Creation that the Person Who purifies Himself will be Successful and the Person Who corrupts Himself will fail

Mujahid said,

[وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَـهَا ]
(By the sun and Duhaha.) "This means, by its light.'' Qatadah said,

[وَضُحَـهَا]
(wa Duhaha.) "The whole day.'' Ibn Jarir said, "The correct view is what has been said, `Allah swears by the sun and its daytime, because the clear light of the sun is daytime.'''

[وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلـهَا ]
(By the moon as it Talaha.) Mujahid said, "It follows it (the sun).'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلـهَا ]
(By the moon as it Talaha.) "It follows the day.'' Qatadah said, "`as it Talaha (follows it)' is referring to the night of the Hilal (the new crescent moon). When the sun goes down, the Hilal is visible.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا ]
(By the day as it Jallaha.) Mujahid said, "When it illuminates.'' Thus, Mujahid said,

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا ]
(By the day as it Jallaha.) "This is similar to Allah's statement,

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى ]
(By the day as it Tajalla.) (92:2)'' And they have said concerning Allah's statement,

[وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَـهَا ]
(By the night as it Yaghshaha.) meaning, when it covers the sun, which takes place when sun disappears and the horizons become dark. Concerning Allah's statement,

[وَالسَّمَآءِ وَمَا بَنَـهَا ]
(By the heaven and Ma Banaha.) The meaning here could be for descriptive purposes, meaning "By the heaven and its construction.'' This was said by Qatadah. It could also mean "By the heaven and its Constructor.'' This was stated by Mujahid. Both views are interrelated, and construction means raising. This is as Allah says,

[وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا بِأَيْدٍ]
(With Hands did We construct the heaven.) (51:47) meaning, with strength.

[وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ - وَالاٌّرْضَ فَرَشْنَـهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَـهِدُونَ ]
(Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof. And We have spread out the earth: how excellent a spreader are We!) (51:47-48) This is also similar to Allah's statement,

[وَالاٌّرْضِ وَمَا طَحَـهَا ]
(By the earth and Ma Tahaha.) Mujahid said, "Tahaha means He spread it out.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[وَمَا طَحَـهَا]
(and Ma Tahaha.) "This means what He created in it.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Tahaha means that He proportioned it.'' Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri, Abu Salih and Ibn Zayd all said that

[طَحَـهَا]
(Tahaha) means, He spread it out. Allah then says,

[وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا ]
(By Nafs, and Ma Sawwaha (Who apportioned it).) meaning, He created it sound and well-proportioned upon the correct nature (Al-Fitrah). This is as Allah says,

[فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفاً فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ]
(So set you your face towards the religion, Hanif. Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in the Khalqillah.) (30:30) The Messenger of Allah said,

Allah swears by His Creation that the Person Who purifies Himself will be Successful and the Person Who corrupts Himself will fail

Mujahid said,

[وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَـهَا ]
(By the sun and Duhaha.) "This means, by its light.'' Qatadah said,

[وَضُحَـهَا]
(wa Duhaha.) "The whole day.'' Ibn Jarir said, "The correct view is what has been said, `Allah swears by the sun and its daytime, because the clear light of the sun is daytime.'''

[وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلـهَا ]
(By the moon as it Talaha.) Mujahid said, "It follows it (the sun).'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلـهَا ]
(By the moon as it Talaha.) "It follows the day.'' Qatadah said, "`as it Talaha (follows it)' is referring to the night of the Hilal (the new crescent moon). When the sun goes down, the Hilal is visible.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا ]
(By the day as it Jallaha.) Mujahid said, "When it illuminates.'' Thus, Mujahid said,

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّـهَا ]
(By the day as it Jallaha.) "This is similar to Allah's statement,

[وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى ]
(By the day as it Tajalla.) (92:2)'' And they have said concerning Allah's statement,

[وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَـهَا ]
(By the night as it Yaghshaha.) meaning, when it covers the sun, which takes place when sun disappears and the horizons become dark. Concerning Allah's statement,

[وَالسَّمَآءِ وَمَا بَنَـهَا ]
(By the heaven and Ma Banaha.) The meaning here could be for descriptive purposes, meaning "By the heaven and its construction.'' This was said by Qatadah. It could also mean "By the heaven and its Constructor.'' This was stated by Mujahid. Both views are interrelated, and construction means raising. This is as Allah says,

[وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا بِأَيْدٍ]
(With Hands did We construct the heaven.) (51:47) meaning, with strength.

[وَالسَّمَآءَ بَنَيْنَـهَا بِأَيْدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ - وَالاٌّرْضَ فَرَشْنَـهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَـهِدُونَ ]
(Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof. And We have spread out the earth: how excellent a spreader are We!) (51:47-48) This is also similar to Allah's statement,

[وَالاٌّرْضِ وَمَا طَحَـهَا ]
(By the earth and Ma Tahaha.) Mujahid said, "Tahaha means He spread it out.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,

[وَمَا طَحَـهَا]
(and Ma Tahaha.) "This means what He created in it.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Tahaha means that He proportioned it.'' Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri, Abu Salih and Ibn Zayd all said that

[طَحَـهَا]
(Tahaha) means, He spread it out. Allah then says,

[وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا ]
(By Nafs, and Ma Sawwaha (Who apportioned it).) meaning, He created it sound and well-proportioned upon the correct nature (Al-Fitrah). This is as Allah says,

[فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفاً فِطْرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لاَ تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ]
(So set you your face towards the religion, Hanif. Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in the Khalqillah.) (30:30) The Messenger of Allah said,

 
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