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Refutation of false gods Print E-mail
Written by Ibn Kathir   
Friday, 10 November 2006

Refutation of false gods

Allah denounces those who take other gods instead of Him:

[أَمِ اتَّخَذُواْ آلِهَةً مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ هُمْ يُنشِرُونَ ]
(Or have they taken gods from the earth who raise the dead) meaning, can they bring the dead back to life and bring them forth from the earth They cannot do any of that, so how can they make them rivals to Allah and worship them alongside Him Then Allah tells us that if there were another god besides Him, the heavens and the earth would be ruined:

[لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَآ آلِهَةٌ]
(Had there been therein gods) means, in the heavens and the earth,

[لَفَسَدَتَا]
(then verily, both would have been ruined.) This is like the Ayah:

[مَا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ مِن وَلَدٍ وَمَا كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ إِلَـهٍ إِذاً لَّذَهَبَ كُلُّ إِلَـهٍ بِمَا خَلَقَ وَلَعَلاَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ ]
(No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him. Then each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allah above all that they attribute to Him!) [23:91]. And Allah says here:

[فَسُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ]
(Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, above all that they associate with Him!) meaning, glorified be He above what they say about Him having offspring or partners; glorified and exalted and sanctified be He far above all the lies that they fabricate.

[لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْـَلُونَ ]
(He cannot be questioned about what He does, while they will be questioned.) He is the Ruler Whose rule cannot be overturned and none can object to it, because of His might, majesty, pride, knowledge, wisdom, justice and subtlety.

[وَهُمْ يُسْـَلُونَ]
(while they will be questioned.) means, He is the One Who will ask His creation about what they did. This is like the Ayah:

[فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَسْـَلَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ - عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ]
(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.) [15:92-93]

[وَهُوَ يُجْيِرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ]
(And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector) [23:88]

[أَمِ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِ ءَالِهَةً قُلْ هَاتُواْ بُرْهَـنَكُمْ هَـذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِىَ وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِى بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ فَهُمْ مُّعْرِضُونَ - وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاْ فَاعْبُدُونِ ]
(24. Or have they taken for worship gods besides Him Say: "Bring your proof. This is the Reminder for those with me and the Reminder for those before me.'' But most of them know not the Truth, so they are averse.) (25. And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "There is no God but I, so worship Me.'')

[أَمِ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِ ءَالِهَةً قُلْ]
(Or have they taken for worship gods besides Him Say:) -- O Muhammad --

[هَاتُواْ بُرْهَـنَكُمْ]
(Bring your proof.) your evidence for what you are saying.

[هَـذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِىَ]
(This is the Reminder for those with me) means, the Qur'an.

[وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِى]
(and the Reminder for those before me) means, the previous Books, unlike what you claim. Each Book was revealed to each Prophet who was sent with the message that there is no god except Allah, but you idolators do not recognize the truth, so you turn away from it. Allah says:

[وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاْ فَاعْبُدُونِ ]
(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "There is no god but I. ..'') This is like the Ayat:

[وَاسْئلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَآ أَجَعَلْنَا مِن دُونِ الرَّحْمَـنِ ءَالِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ ]
(And ask those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious'') [43:45]

[وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِى كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الْطَّـغُوتَ]
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah, and avoid Taghut (all false deities).'') [16:36] Every Prophet who was sent by Allah called people to worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate. The natural inclination of man (Al-Fitrah) also bears witness to that. The idolators have no proof and their dispute is of no use before their Lord; on them is wrath, and for them will be a severe torment.

[وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَلَداً سُبْحَانَهُ بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُّكْرَمُونَ - لاَ يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُمْ بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ - يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يَشْفَعُونَ إِلاَّ لِمَنِ ارْتَضَى وَهُمْ مِّنْ خَشْيَتِهِ مُشْفِقُونَ - وَمَن يَقُلْ مِنْهُمْ إِنِّى إِلَـهٌ مِّن دُونِهِ فَذلِكَ نَجْزِيهِ جَهَنَّمَ كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِى الظَّـلِمِينَ ]
(26. And they say: "The Most Gracious has begotten children.'' Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.) (27. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command.) (28. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.) (29. And if any of them should say: "Verily, I am a god besides Him,'' such We should recompense with Hell. Thus We recompense the wrongdoers.)

Refutation of false gods

Allah denounces those who take other gods instead of Him:

[أَمِ اتَّخَذُواْ آلِهَةً مِّنَ الاٌّرْضِ هُمْ يُنشِرُونَ ]
(Or have they taken gods from the earth who raise the dead) meaning, can they bring the dead back to life and bring them forth from the earth They cannot do any of that, so how can they make them rivals to Allah and worship them alongside Him Then Allah tells us that if there were another god besides Him, the heavens and the earth would be ruined:

[لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَآ آلِهَةٌ]
(Had there been therein gods) means, in the heavens and the earth,

[لَفَسَدَتَا]
(then verily, both would have been ruined.) This is like the Ayah:

[مَا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ مِن وَلَدٍ وَمَا كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ إِلَـهٍ إِذاً لَّذَهَبَ كُلُّ إِلَـهٍ بِمَا خَلَقَ وَلَعَلاَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ ]
(No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him. Then each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allah above all that they attribute to Him!) [23:91]. And Allah says here:

[فَسُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ]
(Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, above all that they associate with Him!) meaning, glorified be He above what they say about Him having offspring or partners; glorified and exalted and sanctified be He far above all the lies that they fabricate.

[لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْـَلُونَ ]
(He cannot be questioned about what He does, while they will be questioned.) He is the Ruler Whose rule cannot be overturned and none can object to it, because of His might, majesty, pride, knowledge, wisdom, justice and subtlety.

[وَهُمْ يُسْـَلُونَ]
(while they will be questioned.) means, He is the One Who will ask His creation about what they did. This is like the Ayah:

[فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَسْـَلَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ - عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ ]
(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.) [15:92-93]

[وَهُوَ يُجْيِرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ]
(And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector) [23:88]

[أَمِ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِ ءَالِهَةً قُلْ هَاتُواْ بُرْهَـنَكُمْ هَـذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِىَ وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِى بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ فَهُمْ مُّعْرِضُونَ - وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاْ فَاعْبُدُونِ ]
(24. Or have they taken for worship gods besides Him Say: "Bring your proof. This is the Reminder for those with me and the Reminder for those before me.'' But most of them know not the Truth, so they are averse.) (25. And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "There is no God but I, so worship Me.'')

[أَمِ اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِ ءَالِهَةً قُلْ]
(Or have they taken for worship gods besides Him Say:) -- O Muhammad --

[هَاتُواْ بُرْهَـنَكُمْ]
(Bring your proof.) your evidence for what you are saying.

[هَـذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِىَ]
(This is the Reminder for those with me) means, the Qur'an.

[وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِى]
(and the Reminder for those before me) means, the previous Books, unlike what you claim. Each Book was revealed to each Prophet who was sent with the message that there is no god except Allah, but you idolators do not recognize the truth, so you turn away from it. Allah says:

[وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاْ فَاعْبُدُونِ ]
(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "There is no god but I. ..'') This is like the Ayat:

[وَاسْئلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَآ أَجَعَلْنَا مِن دُونِ الرَّحْمَـنِ ءَالِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ ]
(And ask those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious'') [43:45]

[وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِى كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الْطَّـغُوتَ]
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah, and avoid Taghut (all false deities).'') [16:36] Every Prophet who was sent by Allah called people to worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate. The natural inclination of man (Al-Fitrah) also bears witness to that. The idolators have no proof and their dispute is of no use before their Lord; on them is wrath, and for them will be a severe torment.

[وَقَالُواْ اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَلَداً سُبْحَانَهُ بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُّكْرَمُونَ - لاَ يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُمْ بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ - يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يَشْفَعُونَ إِلاَّ لِمَنِ ارْتَضَى وَهُمْ مِّنْ خَشْيَتِهِ مُشْفِقُونَ - وَمَن يَقُلْ مِنْهُمْ إِنِّى إِلَـهٌ مِّن دُونِهِ فَذلِكَ نَجْزِيهِ جَهَنَّمَ كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِى الظَّـلِمِينَ ]
(26. And they say: "The Most Gracious has begotten children.'' Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.) (27. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command.) (28. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.) (29. And if any of them should say: "Verily, I am a god besides Him,'' such We should recompense with Hell. Thus We recompense the wrongdoers.)

 
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